Curcumin blocks enzyme in multiple myeloma and TNBC

Curcumin blocks enzyme in multiple myeloma and TNBC
Proteasome inhibitors are important drugs for the inhibition of proteasomes in the treatment of multiple myeloma; and research shows turmeric (or curcumin) can inhibit the same enzymes in cancers from multiple myeloma to TNBC.
Proteasome Inhibitors and cancer
Proteasomes exist in cells to denature unwanted proteins. .All cells make proteins, cancer cells too. Multiple myeloma and TNBC make excessive amounts. If the proteins are allowed to build up, the cell dies. So, proteasomes keep the cell alive and functioning. Block the proteasomes and you create an anti-cancer treatment (1). (Updated from a research article in 2018, by Chris Woollams)
Proteasome Inhibitors are a class of drugs that have changed Myeloma treatment. First generation Bortezomib (Velcade), second generation Carfilzomib and the first oral proteasome inhibitor, Ixazomib are leaders in Multiple Myeloma. 

Cancer cells have higher levels of proteasomes than healthy cells, and cancers such as Multiple Myeloma and Triple Negative Breast Cancer seem to have excess! But other cancers use proteasomes to grow and spread, for example Prostate cancer spreads through the ubiquitin-proteasome (UPS) system (3) and Pancreatic cancer growth is dependent upon proteasomes (4). There can be different forms of proteasomes and Pancreatic cancer, Breast cancer and Colorectal cancer show this heterogenity (5).

Turmeric (curcumin) blocks proteasomes 
Researchers from San Diego have shown (2) that curcumin is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of Dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated Kinase 2 (DYRK2), which in turn regulates the 26S proteasome, the main proteasome of MM. By restricting the proteasome activity they found cell proliferation reduced greatly and the cancer load declined.
Curcumin comprises just 3% of the root Turmeric (curcuma longa) and has long been used as an antioxidant and microbe killer. On this website we have provided Clinical Trial data that shows it can make certain drugs work better while protecting healthy cells during chemotherapy.
Turmeric, curcumin and homocysteine
It is also known to reduce homocysteine levels in the microenvironment of cells. Homocysteine builds up in the cellular microenvironments because of 'pollution' from poor diet, stress and other factors. Homocysteine lies behind the development of chronic illnesses from cancer to dementia. Turmeric is also known to reduce homocysteine.  Multiple Myeloma cells and TNBC cells have higher levels of homocysteine. Other compounds such as berberine and fish oils with B vitamins can also lower homocysteine.
Jack E. Dixon, Ph.D., Professor of Pharmacology, Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Chemistry and Biochemistry at UC San Diego, commented, "Our results reveal an unexpected role of curcumin’"
Chris Woollams, former Oxford University Biochemist and founder of CANCERactive said, ”We always advocate curcumin for Multiple Myeloma and TNBC, and have provided research for readers previously. It is always good when someone works out how it works, though. The standard dose for us is between 1.0 and 3.2 gm. A good number of people with Myeloma in America take 3.2 gm. You should always take turmeric or curcumin with black pepper and a little olive oil. We have had a couple of patients using hyperbaric oxygen which damages cancer tumours, go to 8 gm with dramatic and positive results though!” 
  1. Proteasomes, Proteasome Inhibitors and cancer - WebMd
  1. Ancient drug curcumin impedes 26S proteasome activity by direct inhibition of dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase; PNAS; July 9 2018;115 (32) 8155-8160
  2. Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and prostate cancer; Fang Zhi Chen et al; Onkologie; 2013;36(10):592-6. 
  3. Proteasome regulators in pancreatic cancer; Nirosha J. Murugan et al; World J Gastrointest Oncol; 2022 Jan 15;14(1):38-54
  4. Proteasome Complexes and Their Heterogeneity in Colorectal, Breast and Pancreatic Cancers; Diana Zagirova et al; J. Cancer. 2021 Mar 5;12(9):2472-2487. 



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